World Aquaculture Magazine - June 2020

WWW.WA S.ORG • WORLD AQUACULTURE • JUNE 2020 67 FIGURE 1. Control, Hi25, Hi50, Hi75 and Hi100 diets were characterized by 0, 25, 50, 75 or 100 percent inclusion of BSF meal with respect to FM. Photo: Matteo Zarantoniello. unbalanced amino acid profile, poor protein digestibility, presence of anti-nutritional factors and high production costs. According to the circular economy concept, insects have received great attention as a new aquafeed ingredient because their production is environmental-friendly efficient in terms of land use, water consumption and CO 2 production and represents a low risk of zoonotic disease transmission. Furthermore, most insect species can be cultured using agricultural by-products to take advantage of their high feed conversion efficiency. Among several insect species, black soldier fly Hermetia illucens (BSF) larvae are one of the most promising candidates for inclusion in aquafeeds as a substitute for FM. From a nutritional point of view, BSF larvae are rich in protein and the amino acid composition is similar to that of FM. However, the main limitation in the use of BSF larvae in fish nutrition is their unbalanced fatty acid profile: they are rich in saturated fatty acids (SFA) but are low in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). PUFAs are extremely important for fish since deficiencies of these fatty acids can cause a general decrease of fish health, poor growth, low feed efficiency, anaemia and high mortality. Furthermore, insect meal may alter the biochemical characteristics of fish fillet, especially regarding the fatty acid composition, and this may affect the beneficial effects of fish consumption. A quaculture is the fastest growing food production sector worldwide, and it is estimated that 62 percent of foodfish will come from aquaculture by 2030. In light of this, aquaculture must be able to provide larger volumes of healthy food by using environmental- friendly ingredients that are able to promote optimal fish growth and welfare. For a long time, aquafeeds have been based on fishmeal (FM) and fish oil (FO) and these ingredients still represent a crucial part of current industrially produced diets, with approximately 20 million t of the total marine catch going into the production of aquafeeds. Because overexploitation of pelagic fisheries has negative ecological and social consequences, developing a strategy to replace FM and FO in feeds is becoming both a private and public-sector priority to reduce pressure and reliance on marine resources while increasing producer profitability. Thus, world-renowned nutritionists and feed technologists are exploring practical ways for the aquaculture industry to expand and remain competitive and discuss methods to develop less expensive alternative sources of lipid and protein. Over the last decades, several alternative ingredients (plant, microalgae and processed animal proteins) to FM and FO have been tested and some of them are currently used in aquafeed production. However, each of these alternatives has some disadvantages like Insect Meal Produced through Bioconversion of Enriched Coffee Roasting Waste as a Sustainable Aquafeed Ingredient Matteo Zarantoniello, Basilio Randazzo, Valentina Nozzi, Paola Riolo, Cristina Truzzi, Sara Ruschioni, Sergio Ciriaco, Gloriana Cardinaletti and Ike Olivotto ( C O N T I N U E D O N P A G E 6 8 )